Standards: Language Arts
Choose punctuation for effect.*
Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph ).
Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture ) in context.
Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.
Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked ) verb tenses.
Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.