Standards: Language Arts
Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl ) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.
Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because ).
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested.
Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Websterâ€™s Dictionary of English Usage, Garnerâ€™s Modern American Usage ) as needed.
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
Observe hyphenation conventions.
Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufteâ€™s Artful Sentences ) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11â€“12 reading and content , choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a wordâ€™s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable ).
Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.
Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).